Timeline: How the Arab Spring unfolded 10 years in the past

On January 14, 2011, Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali stepped down after weeks of protests, ending his 24-year rule.

What started as a protest by Mohamed Bouazizi – a fruit vendor who set himself on hearth – the month earlier than, sparked the interval of unrest that unseated Ben Ali.

Protests and rebellion had been then witnessed throughout the area.

Al Jazeera takes a have a look at the flip of occasions that modified the course of historical past.

[Alia Chughtai/Al Jazeera]

TUNISIA

December 2010

December 17: Jobless graduate Bouazizi died after setting himself on hearth when police refused to let him function his cart. The self-immolation, following WikiLeaks’s publication of US criticism of the federal government, provokes younger Tunisians to protest.

December 29: After 10 days of demonstrations, President Ben Ali seems on tv promising motion on job creation, declaring the regulation can be very agency on protesters.

January 2011

January 9: Eleven folks die in clashes with safety forces. Protesters set hearth to vehicles in a number of Tunisian cities, whereas safety forces reply violently.

January 14: Ben Ali lastly bows to the protests and flees to Saudi Arabia.

January 17: Tunisia’s Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi pronounces the formation of an interim unity authorities that features figures from the earlier authorities. However protesters throng the streets to reject it.

February 2011

February 27 – Prime Minister Ghannouchi resigns.

March 2011

March 9: Tunisian court docket guidelines the social gathering of former President Ben Ali can be dissolved. The information is adopted by road celebrations.

October 2011

October 23: Polls open 9 months after Tunisians first took to the streets.

January 2012

January 14: Celebrations are witnessed within the capital to mark one 12 months because the overthrow of Ben Ali.

LIBYA

January 2011

January 14: First reviews of unrest in Libya. Muammar Gaddafi condemns the Tunisian rebellion in a televised deal with.

January 16: Protests erupt in Benghazi after the arrest of human rights activists.

February 2011

February 20: The dying toll passes 230; Gaddafi’s son addresses Libyan TV defending his father.

February 25: As rebellion reaches the guts of Tripoli, protests erupt throughout the Center East.

March 2011

March 9: Gaddafi warns the imposition of a no-fly zone in Libyan airspace can be met with armed resistance.

March 18: The United Nations backs a no-fly zone.

March 19: Operation Odyssey Daybreak begins, marking the most important assault on an Arab authorities because the 2003 Iraq invasion.

March 23: Britain, France and the US agree NATO will take army command of Libya’s no-fly zone.

March 28: Rebels advance on Sirte, Gaddafi’s house metropolis, recapturing a number of cities with out resistance on the best way.

April 2011

April 15: US President Barrack Obama commits to army motion till Gaddafi is eliminated.

April 25: Libyan authorities accuses NATO of making an attempt to assassinate Gaddafi after two air raids in three days hit his premises in Tripoli.

Might 2011

Might 1: The British embassy in Tripoli is ready on hearth and different Western missions ransacked in retaliation to NATO’s air raid.

August 2011

August 26: In its first Tripoli information convention, the Nationwide Transitional Council says its cupboard will transfer from Benghazi to the capital.

September 2011

September 8: Whereas in hiding, Gaddafi points a defiant message promising by no means to depart “the land of his ancestors”.

September 25: A mass grave containing 1,270 our bodies is found in Tripoli.

October 2011

October 20:  Cornered by insurgent forces and pinned down by NATO air raids, Gaddafi is discovered hiding and killed.

October 25: Gaddafi’s burial alongside his son ends the controversy over the general public displaying of his physique.

November 2011

November 19: Celebrations as Gaddafi’s fugitive son Saif is arrested whereas making an attempt to flee to Niger.

November 20:  All main figures from the Gaddafi regime are killed, captured or pushed into exile.

EGYPT

January 2011

January 17: A person units hearth to himself subsequent to the Parliament constructing in Cairo to protest the nation’s financial situations.

January 25: The primary coordinated demonstrations flip Cairo right into a battle zone as protesters demand the elimination of President Hosni Mubarak.

January 28: After 4 days of protests and 25 deaths, Mubarak makes his first TV look, pledging his dedication to democracy. He sacks his authorities however refuses to step down.

January 31: The military declares itself allied to the protesters.

February 2011

February 1: Mubarak declares he won’t run within the subsequent election however will oversee the transition.

February 2:  Mubarak supporters stage a brutal bid to crush the Cairo rebellion. Utilizing golf equipment, bats and knives, they begin a bloody battle in Tahrir Sq..

February 11: Mubarak resigns and arms energy to the army.

February 13: The army rejects protesters’ calls for for a swift switch of energy to a civilian administration.

August 2011

August 1: Bringing within the tanks, the military violently retakes Tahrir Sq..

September 2011

September 27: The army regime pronounces parliamentary elections since Mubarak was overthrown. Protesters concern remnants of the previous regime will keep in energy.

October 2011

October 6: Supreme Council of the Armed Forces unveil plans that might see it retain energy till 2013.

November 2011

November 13: Violence escalates as protests in opposition to the governing army authorities unfold past Cairo and Alexandria.

November 21: The interim authorities bows to rising strain as violence leaves 33 useless and greater than 2,000 injured.

November 29: Egyptians vote in document numbers within the nation’s first free poll for greater than 80 years.

November 30: The Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Occasion appears on target to be the most important winner after the primary spherical of voting.

December 2011

December 5: Egyptians go to the polls as soon as extra in runoff elections for parliamentary seats as no social gathering gained greater than 50 p.c of the votes.

December 7: A brand new authorities is sworn in by Kamal Ganzouri, who was appointed prime minister by the army rulers.

Might 2012

Might 23-24: Egyptians vote within the first spherical of the presidential election with Ahmed Shafik and Mohammed Morsi within the lead.

June 2012

June 2: Former President Mubarak sentenced to life in jail by an Egyptian court docket.

June 24: Egypt’s election fee pronounces Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi wins Egypt’s presidential runoff.

BAHRAIN

February 2011

February 4: A number of hundred Bahrainis collect in entrance of the Egyptian embassy within the capital Manama to specific solidarity with anti-government protesters there.

February 14: “Day of Rage”: An estimated 6,000 folks take part in demonstrations. Their calls for embrace constitutional and political reform and socioeconomic justice.

February 17: “Bloody Thursday”: At about 3am native time, police clear the Pearl Roundabout of an estimated 1,500 folks in tents. Three individuals are killed and greater than 200 injured in the course of the raid.

February 26: The king dismisses a number of ministers in an obvious transfer to appease the opposition.

March 2011

March 1: An anti-government rally, referred to as by seven opposition teams, sees tens of 1000’s of protesters collaborating.

March 14: Saudi Arabia deploys troops and armoured autos into Bahrain to assist quell the unrest.

March 15: Bahrain declares martial regulation.

March 18: The Pearl Monument – the focus of the protest motion – is demolished.

March 27: Opposition social gathering Al Wefaq accepts a Kuwaiti provide to mediate talks.

March 29: Bahraini Overseas Minister Khalid ibn Ahmad Al Khalifah denies any Kuwaiti involvement.

SAUDI ARABIA

March 2011

March 6: Authorities ban public protests after demonstrations by minority Shia teams.

September 2011

September 25: King Abdullah pronounces cautious reforms, together with the suitable for ladies to vote and stand for election from 2015.

YEMEN

January 2011

January 24: Police arrest 19 opposition activists together with Tawakil Karman, a feminine campaigner and Nobel Peace Prize winner, who referred to as for the elimination of President Ali Abdullah Saleh.

March 2011

March 8: Greater than 2,000 inmates stage a revolt at a jail within the capital Sanaa and be part of calls by anti-government protesters for Saleh to step down.

March 10: Saleh’s pledge to create a parliamentary system of presidency is rejected by the opposition.

March 18: Forty-five individuals are killed after authorities forces open hearth on protesters in Sanaa.

April 2011

April 27: Safety forces shoot at an anti-government demonstration, killing 12.

June 2011

June 3: President Saleh survives an assassination try during which he’s severely wounded.

September 2011

September 23: Saleh returns unexpectedly after three months of recovering in Saudi Arabia. He requires a truce after 5 days of violence in Sanaa during which 100 protesters are killed.

September 25: Saleh requires early elections in his first speech after returning to Yemen.

November 2011

November 23: Settlement for a direct switch of energy pledges immunity for Saleh and his household.

December 2011

December 1: The political opposition and Saleh’s social gathering comply with the make-up of an interim authorities.

February 2012

February 27: Saleh formally resigns and arms over powers to Vice President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi.

SYRIA

March 2011

March 15: Main unrest begins when protesters march in Damascus and Aleppo, demanding democratic reforms and the discharge of political prisoners. Rallies had been triggered by the arrest of a teenage boy and his associates just a few days earlier within the metropolis of Deraa for graffiti denouncing President Bashar al-Assad.

April 2011

April 9: Anti-government demonstrations unfold throughout Syria. At the very least 22 are killed in Deraa.

April 25: Tanks are deployed for the primary time.

April 28: Tons of of governing Baath social gathering members resign in protest as an more and more bloody crackdown kills 500.

June 2011

June 4: Safety forces kill not less than 100 protesters in two days of bloodshed.

July 2011

July 25: The cupboard backs a draft regulation to permit rival political events for the primary time in many years.

January 2012

January 10: In a televised speech, President al-Assad says he won’t stand down and guarantees to assault “terrorists” with an iron fist.

February 2012

February 3: The Syrian authorities launches an assault on town of Homs.

April 2013

April 16: The primary truce within the battle of Aleppo is said.

June 2013

June 16: Iran sends 4,000 troops to help Syrian authorities forces.

September 2015

September 30: Formal permission is granted by Russia’s higher home for air raids in Syria. Al-Assad asks President Vladimir Putin for army support.

November 2015

November 24: Putin calls Turkey “accomplices of terrorists” and warns of “critical penalties” after a Turkish F-16 jet shoots down a Russian warplane.

March 2016
March 14: Putin pronounces the withdrawal of nearly all of Russian troops from Syria, saying the intervention has largely achieved its goal.

JORDAN

January 2011

January 14: Protests start with calls for for Prime Minister Samir Rifai’s resignation along with financial reforms.

March 2011

March 24: About 500 protesters arrange camp in the primary sq. within the capital Amman.

October 2011

October 7: Protests begin once more when former Prime Minister Ahmad Obeidat leads about 2,000 folks in a march outdoors the Grand Husseini Mosque in central Amman. There have been additionally marches within the cities of Karka, Tafileh, Maan, Jerash and Salt.

October 2012

October 5: Hundreds protest hours after King Abdullah II dissolved Parliament and referred to as early elections.

November 2012

November 13: Protests erupt nationwide in response to a rise in gas costs and different fundamental items introduced by Prime Minister Abdullah Ensour.

SUDAN

December 2018

December 19: Tons of protest within the northern metropolis of Atbara in opposition to hovering bread costs. Demonstrations spurred by a broader financial disaster unfold to Khartoum and different main cities.

April 2019

April 11: The military overthrows President Omar al-Bashir, ending his 30 years in energy. The generals announce two years of army rule adopted by elections. Road celebrations flip into extra demonstrations as tons of of 1000’s demand handover to civilians.

June 2019

June 3: Safety forces raid a sit-in protest outdoors the defence ministry in Khartoum. Crowds flee in panic. Within the days that observe, opposition-linked medics say greater than 100 folks had been killed within the assault.

June 16: Al-Bashir seems in public for the primary time since his overthrow as he’s taken from jail to be charged with corruption-related offences. He has already been charged with incitement and involvement within the killing of protesters.

July 2019

July 5: A army council and a coalition of opposition teams comply with share energy for 3 years after mediation by Ethiopia and strain from the African Union and world powers.

July 17: A political accord is signed that defines the transition’s establishments. Variations stay over the wording of a constitutional declaration.

July 29: At the very least 4 youngsters and one grownup are shot useless when safety forces break up a pupil protest in opposition to gas and bread shortages within the metropolis of El-Obeid.

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